Friday, May 31, 2019

Medical Advances Essay -- Essays Papers

Medical AdvancesBesides the computer revolution, medical advances have caused tension between faith and reason. The medical advances of the Twentieth Century have more beneficial effects for humanity. Diseases that used to be dangerous or life threatening, like mumps, measles, and whooping cough, are no longer worries in todays medical world. Tetanus, typhoid, and the bubonic establishment can straightway be treated with antibiotics or other medicines. Vaccines, especially the polio vaccine, freed many people from the effects of a unsoundness. Advances in heart surgical process and organ transplants have saved many lives. Anesthetics and painkillers have been make to reduce or eliminate pain during surgery or a painful disease. Advances in cancer and AIDS have also been made, although many of the details of these diseases are yet to be learned. Another area of medical advancement is genetic engineering. inherited engineering will detect and possibly stop diseases before birth . Many diseases are associated with specific genes that can be checked for disease and replaced if dysfunctional. Genetic test has already revealed genetic mutations that cause hypertension, heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, colon cancer, polycystic kidney disease, Alzheimers disease, and others. (5) Replacing missing, altered, inactive, or dysfunctional genes will prevent diseases or even death. Also, progression of a disease can be monitored, and proactive measures against recurrence and relapse of the disease can be made. Molecular medicine in genetics will also cleanse the design and testing of new drugs. Cloning is another new medical advance that allows for many great possibilites. Exact organ matches for organ transplants could be made through cloning. Animal... ...e specific traits in people could lead to the creating of a specific person, also known as cloning. Although the ability to create people could mean amaze Teresa could be re-created or cloned, this ability also means Hitler could be re-created or cloned. The effects of this reason depend upon whose hands the place is in. So, who has the power to play God? This question needs to be answered to decide if many of the latest medical advances are justifiable. Obviously, only God can have the power to be God. Only He truly understands peoples purpose on earth since He put them there. Court cases and congressional actions are victorious place to decide how the United States stands on the ethics of medical procedures. Humans have been working hard to find medical techniques to save life and now all this progress is being reverted, especially through abortions and euthanasia.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Lewis and Lewis, P.C. :: Accounting Firms Business Analysis Essays

Lewis and Lewis, P.C.Lewis & Lewis, P.C. is a small, Jackson-based accounting firm thatemploys thirty-five people and was founded by Phil Willis in 1968. It exhibitsmany inte inhabiting aspects of organizational behavior, which we will experience belowfrom several perspectives. After examining the companys current policies andpractices, we will evaluate its status in the transition from the old to thenew model of organization, and recommend some changes that may improve the wayLewis & Lewis operates.From a Strategic PerspectivePhysical DescriptionLewis & Lewis, P.C. is located in a quiet suburb of Jackson, Michigan.It is a forty-five handsome drive from Lansing. The two-storied building is builton a slightly elevated hill with spacious parking lots in the back and to oneside. The outer(a) walls atomic number 18 of a pleasant beige brick which is in keeping withthe calm atmosphere of the community and of the landscape. Right in front ofthe building there are columns and the large briny entrance is toward the rearoff the parking lot.The appearance of the building is well harmonized with the surroundings.However, it gives guests the impression of dignity and openness.Directly inside the main entrance to Lewis & Lewis is a small butwelcoming lobby, with a natural stone floor, stylish but difficult to walk on inheels. on that point is a narrow open closet for guests to hang their coats, and severalchairs arranged around a table on which are placed the company newssheet andother publications. The receptionists desk is facing the entrance door, andbehind it sits a friendly young woman. The partners offices are found againstthe two farthest external walls, noticeably removed from the rest of office.The other external walls are lined with the offices of the professionals, withlarge windows overlooking the pleasant exterior. The remainder of the officespace is segmented with partitioning walls, forming a sort of jail cell labyrinth.In the center of this maze is a small kitchen where employees gather andconverse informally. Adjacent to the kitchen is a small work area with copymachines and office supplies. In a corner of this floor is a set of uninvitingsta irs leading to the ground level, where the conference room is located. Theconference room itself is spacious and handsomely decorated, with a large tableand comfortable chairs, a video center with television and VCR. The seating islimited to fourteen people.Task and Job DescriptionTasks are distributed on the basis of specialization auditing, tax,government and consulting. Very few tasks are performed by routine each daymay include new procedures for each employee.

Does Chromium Picolinate Effectively Aid Weight Loss? :: Health Diet Papers

Does Chromium Picolinate Effectively Aid Weight Loss?For many years people all over the founding have struggled to regulate saddle loss and weight gain. Through research and experimentation, doctors can now provide people with methods of doing this. One widely used weight loss product is chromium picolinate. This is the main ingredient in capsules that are designed to reduce appetite and cravings and help convert fat to lean carcass tissue. Although there is no proven evidence that is one hundred percent accurate, the common opinion of consumers nationwide is that chromium picolinate is effective in aiding weight loss. The general opinion of doctors and scientists, however, is that chromium picolinate does not effectively aid weight loss, and may be harmful due to side effects. This serves as a forewarning to consumers that advertisements may be false, and caution is necessary. What is the Purpose of Chromium Picolinate?Chromium picolinate is used in conjunction with weight loss programs. Its purpose is to control the appetite, preserve lean vigour mass, apparent protein, and stimulate metabolism. (Http//www.west.net/-sbarb) It aims to reduce the cravings for sweets and help the body maintain proper blood sugar levels so the typical energy level ups and downs normally associated with fast are greatly reduced. (http//www.mindspring.com/bobatlga/shapedex.html) Chromium picolinate works to make it easier to burn more calories every minute and to keep excess pounds off forever. (http//users.aol.com/lpvitamins/shapepls.html) While most dieters who dawdle a significant amount of weight lose too much muscle and organ tissue, chromium picolinate can accelerate fat loss bit helping to preserve or increase muscle. (http//www.nutrition-warehouse.com/chromium.picolinate.html). How Does Chromium Picolinate Work?Overall, chromium picolinate works to control hunger, spare protein and stimulate metabolism. In order to control the appetite, specially reduce sugar cra vings, chromium picolinate sensitizes the glucostat in the brain that monitors blood sugar availability and tells the body when its hungry or not hungry. In order to spare protein, chromium picolinate sensitzes muscle to insulin, and helps to preserve muscle in dieters so that they burn more fat and less muscle. This preservation of lean body mass has an of import long-term positive effect on metabolic rate. This process helps dieters keep off the fat that they lose. It works because insulin directly stimulates protein synthesis and retards protein breakdown in muscles. During embarrassed calorie diets, as insulin levels decline , the protein sparing process also declines. Chromium picolinate also stimulates metabolism. In order to do this, chromium picolinate aides the heat producing effects of insulin .

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Individuals vs. Society Essay -- essays research papers

An individuals consumption in association can vary with the number themes the characters exhibit. When there are signs of fate, cruelties, weaknesses, and desires for justice and catharsis the role of an individual becomes more complicated. In Antigone, most of those themes are shown thus a single persons influence or role on society is very small and complicated to attain. However in The Lottery the society has most of the control and there is not many signs of those characteristics so the role of a person is simplified because they are nothing compared to the society combined. Finally, in The Penalty of Death, there are signs of many of the themes but since it is the societies influence against that of an individuals, it is simplified because they have to take a shit together. Out of the three readings, I believe that Antigone exhibits most of the characteristics that complicates an individuals role in society. on that point is a considerable amount of fate shown in this story . For example, the most evident is that of our main character Antigone. Her fate is shown from the Prologue where she makes her decision to bury her brother Polyneices. Ismene, I am going to bury him. Will you come? There is a point that sort of suggests where her conflict will arise where she defies Creons law by saying, Creon is not strong enough to stand in my way. failing was shown on the part of Creon. His main weaknesses were his cruelty and hubris. He seems especially cruel when he is enraged with Haimon for t...

How I Would Direct A View From The Bridge :: Drama

How I Would Direct A View From The BridgeIn this essay, I will explain how Arthur miller creates tension andsuspense in A View From The Bridge by explaining the dramaticdevices, props, characters etc.In A View From The Bridge, Arthur Miller employs various techniquesto generate dramatic tension and to try for the audiences interest. Theplaywright uses the setting, characters, stage directions, props,lighting, language, and setting as the main sources of drama.The characters are a vital element in the play, and are the basis ofthe drama. Eddie is portrayed as a well respected, hard working,ordinary man. He is dedicated to his family and is presented as anamiable character.He was as good a man as he had to be in a life that was hard andeven. Alfieri explains this at the beginning of the play, and thisemphasises that Eddie is an honourable, decent person. However, assoon as a catalyst (in the form of the cousins) is introduced, another spot to Eddie is revealed, and his true feelings for Catherineexposed.What are the high heels for Garbo? Eddie says this to Catherine, infront of the cousins, to deliberately humiliate her. Eddie seesCatherines attentiveness towards Rodolfo and becomes jealous. Thissexual jealousy grows throughout the play and the audience realizethat what did come out like over-protectiveness is in fact romanticobsession and unlawful love for Catherine. This disgusts the audienceand so they begin to turn against Eddie. Eddies attachment toCatherine is his flaw. His demise is the consequence of this weakness.Eddies circumstances becomes inevitable and predictable when his inability tocompromise and the true extent of his fixation with Catherine becomesapparent.His eyes were like tunnels. Alfieri says this to describe Eddie. Itsuggests that Eddie has tunnel vision, and can only focus on one thing- Catherine. This is evident when Eddie calls Immigration to snitchon Marco and Rodolfo. It highlights Eddies desperation and loss ofrational thinking as he acts on the contrary of his own well-setbeliefs, which he outlined at the beginning of the play with theconsequences of Vinnie Banzalos betrayal.The characters are all involved in very tangled relationships.Beatrice is jealous of Eddies love for Catherine.When am I gonna be a wife again Eddie? She is very frustrated withher husband, but he will not face the reality of the situation. Eddieexpects Beatrice to support him, as wives were sibyllic at that time.So when Beatrice defends Catherine, Eddie cannot understand why hiswife is deliberately defying him as he believes he is being perfectlyreasonable.Eddie insinuates that Rodolfo is homosexual due to his apparent

Monday, May 27, 2019

Essay --

Andrea BeverlyProfessor McClendonENGL 1301.A00217 March 2014Cause and consequence of Human Trafficking Sexual ExploitationCause and Effect Essay On the news and all over the world you hear the term human trafficking. What exactly is human trafficking? Human trafficking is essentially modern-day slave trading, which ensnares millions of people in debt bondage or forced conditions. (Siddharth).As many know today human trafficking has become a phenomenon all over the country. Human Trafficking is a global activity where women and young girls are being traded and used as sexual exploitation. As Siddharth stated that human trafficking is slowly becoming one of the virtually involved criminal activities all over the world. Two coiffures and two effects on how strongly our human beings are encouraged to take action.One cause of human trafficking is vulnerability of grieved criminals.(cite). Most grieving criminals are vulnerable, because of their living conditions. When they see how eas y it is to be a trafficker makes this issue much more monstrous for women and young girls to be manipulated...

Sunday, May 26, 2019

The Lottery by Shirley Jackson

The draught by Shirley capital of Mississippi opens on a warm June daylight in a townspeople of ab erupt three hundred people, and describes an annual resultant in the town, a tradition that is apparently widespread among surrounding villages as well. While the townspeople, more(prenominal) than 300, seem the arrival of Mr. Summers, and the black wooden box from which everyone is to draw a folded slip of reputation, adults chat while children play a game in which they gather stones.The pillow slip for which they gather is a lottery conducted by Mr. Summers, a neatly dressed, jovial business man with a wife, but no children. Although m both traditional usance associated with the lottery seemed to have been lost over time, Mr. Summers simmer down has a great dope of fussing to be done to begin with he declares the lottery open. He has created lists of households, including the heads of households in each family, and members of each household in each family.Just as Mr. Summer s turned to the assembled villagers, Mrs. Tessie Hutchinson, a house wife, arrives late just then, telling Mrs. Delacroix that she Clean forgot what day it was until she noticed that her children had left her house, and remembered it was the day of the lottery. Mrs. Tessie Hutchinson than makes her way through the crowd to her husband, while the villagers comment on her arrival.Mr. Summers begins the necessity of confirming everyones attendance, and clarifying whom will rede the family. When everything is finalized , each representative is called up one after another, and nervously draws a folded slip of paper from the black box. While people are called up, one of the villagers presents the cerebration of other towns giving up the lottery. Old Man Warner snorts in reply, Pack of crazy fools, Listening to young folks, nothings good enough for them. Next thing you know, theyll be wanting to go back to living in caves, nobody work anymore, live that way for awhile. Used to be a sayin g about Lottery in June, corn be heavy soon. First thing you know, wed all be eating stewed chickweed and acorns. Theres always been a lottery. This statement sets the splendor of this annual event, and the strong beliefs of the town.When the big moment arrives, everyone is silent until the name of Bill Hutchinson rapidly spreads throughout the crowd. Tessie Hutchinson, Bills wife, shouts out to Mr. Summers that he didnt relieve oneself Bill enough time, and that its not fair. Tessie is silenced, and Mr. summers recons for the family of Bill Hutchinson to come forward. Bill, Tessie, and their three children than proceed as every family of the lottery ever has, and draws a hot folded piece of paper from the black box. One by one the family unfolds their piece of paper to determine the sacrificed. Tessie Hutchinson , the declared winner, was led to the center of a cleared space, and with her hands desperately held out in front of her she was hit with the first stone. Everyone then closed in on her, picked up the rocks, the proceeds of the lottery, and stones her to death. Although the villagers had forgotten the ritual, and lost the original black box, they still remembered to use stones.The Lottery by Shirley capital of MississippiThere are many characters that are named in Shirley Jacksons short story, The Lottery. Mr. Summers, a philanthropic man who runs a coal business, Mr. Martin and his sons, Baxter and Bobby. There is Mr. Graves, the man who helped Mr. Summers prepare the lottery, and Old Man Warner. There is Mr. Hutchinson, Mrs. Hutchinson, and their daughter Eva and son-in-law, Donjust to name a few. And although Jacksons story has many characters, she is most interested in the kind phenomenon of the lottery than she is in the characters, themselves.Instead, the characters serve as a means to depict a graphic demonstration of the pointless violence and general inhumanity in peoples lives (213). From the start of the story, throughout, and in the e nd, Jackson defines her view of societys insouciant attitude toward violence with the villagers apathetic way of life. Every year on June twenty-seventh, the families of the village (and of other towns, too) gather in the center of town and come in in a lottery which culminates with the stoning death of a member of one of the families.This heinous tale takes place amid a pleasant setting, The morning of June 27th was clear and sunny, with the fresh warmth of a full-summer day the flowers were blossoming profusely and the grass was richly green (213). She writes of the children playing and scant(p) boys gathering stones that are stockpiled and reticent and ready for the kill. Jackson stupefies the reader as she describes how the lottery is meticulously prepared by Mr. Summers and Mr. Graves, with such pomp and circumstance There was a great deal of fussing to be done before Mr.Summers declared the lottery open (214). Then theres poor Mrs. Hutchinson, who, in her ominous late arriv al, is greeted by Mr. Summers, theme we were going to have to get on without you, Tessie, and she jokingly replies, Wouldnt have me leave mdishes in the sink, now would you, Joe? (215). It is this kind of small-talk among the villagers that makes this incredulous social phenomenon more significant than the characters. As fate would have it, Mr. Hutchinson draws the slip of paper with the black dot on it. You didnt give him time enough to take any paper he wanted.I saw you. It wasnt fair (217). Fair? Because her husband draws the paper with the black dot on it, it is inevitable that someone from her family or even herself, will be stoned to death. Be a good sport, Tessie. All of us took the same chance (217). Even the innocent children are include in the lottery. Do these people have any sense of right or wrong? Tessie Hutchinson draws the paper with the black dot on it. Her neighbors, her friends, and someone gave teeny-weeny Davy Hutchinson a few pebbles (218), with which to hu rl upon his mother.This sick ritual spares no one. The mere thought of this annual lottery is mind-boggling. The matter-of-fact way in which the villagers carried themselves throughout the event as though they are conducting an election of some sort is unconscionable. Jacksons writing is brimming with obdurate expressions. As the stoning begins, All right, folks, allows finish quickly, (218). They want to be through in time to allow the villagers to get home for noon dinner (213). Unbelievable. Hello Lisa, I really enjoyed the insight you offered in your journal.You make very good use of the book by including a great number of citations in your essay and your phrase definitely adds to the readers understanding of your journal and the passage overall. While you have ample evidence to support your claims throughout your entry, I found a few grammatical and technical errors that I would like to point out 1. )And although Jacksons story has many characters, she is most interested in t he social phenomenon of the lottery than she is in the characters, themselves. You do not need a comma before themselves, as a comma separates the thoughts and almost prepares the reader for a new thought. 2. ) She writes of the children playing and little boys gathering stones that are stockpiled and guarded and ready for the kill. A better way of writing this could be She writes of children playing and gathering stones to be stockpiled, guarded, and readied for the kill. 3. ) Jackson stupefies the reader as she describes how the lottery is meticulously prepared by Mr. Summers and Mr.Graves, with such pomp and circumstance Again, you do not need a comma before with such pomp and circumstance, as you are not introducing a new thought. 4. ) Putting unbelievable at the end of your journal weakens it a little bit as you do not further the claim and give it some evidence. Overall, I think you did a really great job answering the question and giving solid evidence to your claims. Fr om your journal essay, I was able to see that the social phenomenon that the writer is talking about is the desensitizing of our culture as a whole Good work and good luck for the rest of the semester

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Living in 1900 or 1750?

Between the years 1750 and 1900, there were many important changes to agriculture, enrapture and education. These were generally for the better yet perhaps didnt affect everyone to the same degree. Looking at each we will see if everyones life was changed for the better.Looking firstly at transport, it can be seen that by 1900 transport had improved greatly, instead of everyone walking and riding bikes people could go on a steam boat or train. The railways were excellent as it meant that fresh food like fish could be delivered and people could go to the seaside whereas before people who didnt live near the sea couldnt get food such as fish as there was no way for fish to travel. Also people from the country could never go to the seaside or go out on day trips as the only transport that they had was themselves or bikes , besides in 1900 they could go nearly anyplace on the steam train. Most peoples lives were changed for the better but it wasnt cheap to ride the train so it didnt h elp poor people at all.Secondly, when we look at education in 1900, it has also improved. In 1750 very few children went to school and those children who did were from very rich families. Hardly any children could subscribe or write move out those who were rich enough to go to school, whereas in 1900 nearly everyone could read and write because school was compulsory for all five to twelve year old children, both(prenominal) boys and girls. By 1900 there were ten universities in England, five in Scotland, one in Wales and one in Ireland. Nearly everyones lives changed for the better, as most people could read and write so they could get decent jobs.Thirdly, while we look at agriculture we can see that it has dramatically changed. Agriculture in 1750 was based on the British Empire. The cattle and livestock were from the places in the British Empire and so were all the crops. But in 1900 the British Empire had veritable rapidly so there were many new and exotic crops for Britain t o eat. It changed peoples live for the better as they had a more balanced diet with lots of new fruits and all opposite crops.Also working conditions changed a lot during these years. In 1750 there were very little industries which were known as cottage industries as they worked in small workshops neighboring to there homes. Whereas in 1900 there were loads of huge factories instead of small workshops. In 1750 there was hardly any pollution if any but in 1900 the air was full of pollution because of the factories. The factories in 1900 were illuminated and had safe guards on most dangerous machines. I think in some aspects it had changed for the better but in others it hadnt. It had changed for the better because it was safer and the factories produced loads of goods but there were lots of pollution.Medicine in 1750 was appalling, nobody knew anything. There were know vaccinations or anything, but in 1900 anaesthetics and antiseptics were developed so now, most patients didnt die of shock. Also Louis Pasteur had detect that germs cause disease, this led to vaccines being developed for diphtheria and other diseases. Also sewers were installed and the water supplies were a lot better, this racecourse back the amount of germs around. This changed everyones lives for better as the vaccinations were available for all.I would rather live in 1900 as the way of life is a lot better. Louis Pasteur had discovered that germs caused disease which helped develop vaccinations. I would like to live in 1900 as school is compulsory so nearly everyone can read and write.

Friday, May 24, 2019

Human Memory Essay

The human memory is that part of our brains that has the capacity to receive, store, and retrieve discipline. It is comprised of not one but three types sensory(a), inadequate term, and long term. Generally, the process involves receiving info or stimulus from the environment. The stimulus is wherefore acquire by the sensory memory. Then the information, which is converted into electrical impulses, is passed by means of the short memory, and finally, the long-term memory through the neurons.SensoryA stimuli that is sensed or received by one of the five sense organs are received by the sensory memory, which acts as a protective barrier. There are different types of sensory memory, one for each sense organ. For the visual stimuli that are registered by the eyes, the sensory memory is called iconic. Stimuli that passes through the ears are received by the echoic memory. And the haptic memory is for stimuli that are felt or touched. A stimulus reaches the sensory memory between t wo hundred and five hundred milliseconds after it was perceived.An example of sensory memory is the ability to remember how or sothing looks like even if you were able-bodied to see it for only a few seconds. Based on research, sensory memory is able to retain about 12 items in a very(prenominal) short period of time. Interruption in the smooth relay of sensory information eject be caused by problems in the neurons . If there are some neurons that do not connect or there are imbalances, then information flow will stop or will be delayed. short-runInformation that reaches the sensory memory are transferred to the short-term memory. This type of memory allows retention of information for up to 60 seconds. While it can remember information far longer than the sensory memory, the short-term memory can only retain up to five items. To increase the number of items that the short-term memory can remember, studies showed that grouping or chunking the items into three have been found ver y useful. Short-term memory will degrade if a soul experiences chronic pain in the neck or drinks constantly. It can be enhanced through aerobic exercises because of the increased oxygen in the brain.Long-TermAfter information has passed through the short-term memory, it is then transferred to the long-term memory for storage and for retrieval in the future. Contrary to the two previous memories, the long-term memory can hold information indefinitely, sometimes for a lifetime. Information becomes ingrained in the memory through repetition or rehearsal. For instance, the alphabets has been constantly repeated to young children in order for them to remember each letter. As a result, knowledge of them will remain etched in memory forever. Long-term memory degrades through certain illnesses. It can be improved through constant intellectual stimulation and rehearsal.Long-term memory groups information into facts and skills. Facts is further classified into two the episodic and semantic . As their names suggests, episodic refers to events that are stored in the memory. All the others are stored in the semantic memory. Skills, on the other hand, is about learned information that needs to be recalled to perform certain actions.The processes involved in the long-term memory are retention, retrieval and deletion. Retention is achieved when there is rehearsal. Deletion happens when there is prophylactic device. Retrieval can occur through recall and sometimes, through recognition. When the information is remembered from memory, it is called recall. If there are promptings and cues to remember an information, it is called recognition.InterferenceInterference is defined as the inability to recall an information because certain items or events interfere with the process. Proactive interference occurs when previous learnings will make it difficult to remember new ones. On the other hand, retroactive interference occurs when new learnings make it difficult or unattainable to recall past information.While studying, information gets jumbled in the students mind because there are too many to recall. To improve submersion and recall, it is important to rehearse the information over a period of time. This could be done by reading the days lessons and memorizing the salient points in front way out to sleep. If the student will make this a habit, he wont need to cram everything in his head a few days before the exam. By constantly rehearsing, the retention and retrieval will become easy.Other Factors That Could Affect MemoryAge is one factor that could make a person forget an information or make it difficult to retrieve it from its storage. Like any other part of the body, the brain also degrades if it is not constantly in use. Injuries, traumas, medicines, and diseases could also affect memory storage and retrieval. For example, a tumor in the brain can interrupt the flow of electrical impulses, resulting to memory loss. Or a trauma caused by accident c ould result to sensory memory loss in one part of the body.To improve and maintain a good memory, it is unceasingly important to forestall on exercising the mind as well as the body. When the mind is seldom used, it degenerates. Reading, learning and engaging in intellectual discourses would keep the mind active.ReferencesGailbuck. (2007). Delving Into the Autistic Brain Part 1. HubPages. Retrieved August 14, 2008, from http//hubpages.com/hub/autism-sensory-processingHuman Memory. Retrieved August 14, 2008, fromhttp//www-static.cc.gatech.edu/classes/cs6751_97_winter/Topics/human- cap/memory.htmlMohs, R. How to Improve Your Memory. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved August 15, 2008, from

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Tobacco Illegality

Making baccy Illegal The Fight That Should be every name I. Tobacco is ever present in this modern society. It is a daily encounter, and little is thought of it. This encounter may be passing through a cloud of smoke on the way to work, or stepping outside to smoke a cig artte, if a person so chooses. Tobacco batch non be ignored with lot inhaling smoke by choice or non. In Smoke alarm, the article illustrates the dangers of inhaling secondhand smoke that is not directly inhaled, saying, Nonsmokers endure to breathe sidestream smoke continually.This smoke, which does not pass through a filter, is burdened with twice the tar and nicotine, 50 times the ammonia and intimately to a greater extent(prenominal) genus Cancer-causing substances, like nitrosamines, than mainstream smoke, (Cousins). Smoking soundly affects the wellness of an individual in a negative way, and it affects the health of people around a smoker as well. As the health effects of take in be becoming incre asingly well known, it is difficult to not acknowledge them and take action accordingly. Why then, do people continue to smoke? The addictiveness of cigargonttes is one undercoat why. The nicotine in cig atomic physical body 18ttes is highly addictive. Medical experts say that it is as addictive as heroin or cocaine, (Kennedy). Once a person starts grass, they become hooked on it and it becomes more difficult to give up and quit with each cigarette they have. In turn, being physically and mentally reliant to a product that so negatively tinges ones health leads to the deaths of well everywhere 400,000 people every year in the United States alone. That number is higher than the deaths of automobile accidents, alcohol abuse, ineligible drugs, AIDS, murder, and suicide combined (Kennedy).Our society has not lived without tobacco plant though, as it may seem obvious to do knowing the harmful effects coupled with that stagger number in mind. The tobacco companies manoeuvre why all in their verse. Tobacco is the countrys fifth-largest cash crop. The industrys revenues compare with those of the aerospace and electrical-equipment fields consumers spend about the comparable tote up of money on cigarettes that they invest in radios, televisions, records and musical instruments combined.Excise taxes alone on tobacco add about $6 zillion annually to state and federal official coffers, (Cousins). With that significant of an effect on the thrift of the United States, living without tobacco would cause an enormous impact on the people of America. The tobacco companies have a strong deal in the economy of the United States and with certainty they do not want tobacco gone. But legion(predicate) people make a strong push for tobacco to be outlawed as it has been in early(a) countries. A command of tobacco is the least they push for and that voice has not been quiet. II.Edward Kennedy defines the employment against tobacco in his article The Food and Drug Admi nistration Should Have the Authority to Regulate Tobacco Products. Senator Kennedy understands that the complete illegalization of tobacco products is out of hand currently, and the crush option he has is to allow for the regulation through the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). This article utilizes the overwhelming impact that tobacco products and gage have on the health of Americans and the dishonesty and the ignorant practices of the tobacco companies to prove why a regulation at the least is needed.Kennedy details in this article the marketing techniques that tobacco companies use in their advertising to attract new smokers, the bent claims the the companies make and the concealment of information. Annually, the tobacco industry will promote its products using thirteen meg dollars. A large majority of that money is going for the crooked process to get barbarianren to try smoking and get hooked on it before they are even legally allowed to (Kennedy). With the seemingly inf inite number of deaths from tobacco stated above, it is cruel that the companies would want this for children as well.Without anymore advertisement than thither currently is, quaternity thousand children smoke for the inaugural time this day which hooks twenty five percent of them (Kennedy). Tobacco companies have been proven to place claims on their products that hold false information, and they naturally conceal the true dangers of their products from the consumers. All of these wrongdoings show that there is a need for actions to be taken, and that action is a regulation. Kennedy also proves the need for an FDA regulation by showing the horrible health effects smoking has on people. Six million of the youth today will die from diseases tobacco has caused, and that is over four hundred thousand every year. This number may be caused by the nicotine in cigarettes being as addictive as big(a) drugs (Kennedy). The levels are still on the rise and that is an otherwise effort why so many of the 40 million Americans hooked on cigarettes die (Kennedy). plenty against the regulation, Kennedy says, say that the FDA should not regulate a product as dangerous as tobacco (Kennedy). It is just the opposite, however, because such a dangerous product needs more regulation to make it less dangerous.Something mustiness be through with(p), because four hundred thousand deaths a year and four thousand new child smokers a day is too high (Kennedy). Overall, this article did an excellent job of showing just why a regulation on tobacco is needed. The foment to regulate and ban smoking in the United States should be much easier than what it is. The youth of America are being educated on the dangers of smoking so often that they should never think to take a single puff of a cigarette, but still so many do.As with countless other actions, the first step is the most important one, and the decision to try a tobacco product could hurt them for the remainder of their livelihood . From that first step into the world of tobacco, the look of the exploiters life drops with each day. The tobacco companies will gladly accept this new victim into their deceitful world and clamp down on their life until its end. The skanky effects tobacco has on the human ashes, the highly addictive nature of cigarettes along with the harm from other chemicals, and the danger that cigarettes pose show reason that tobacco should be banned in the United States.III. Ultimately, smoking and tobacco products have a devastating effect on the well-being of a human tree trunk no matter if an individual inhales one breath, or thousands of breaths from thousands of cigarettes. The short precondition effects are bad enough, but the long term effects rival those. The tobacco companies themselves do not even want to acknowledge these effects as they have shown in the past, and they are the creators of these problems. Smoking cigarettes is associate to lung cancer and other types of canc er, lovingness attacks, cardiovascular disease, a decreased power of prescription rugs, and birth defects in infants (Cousins). Smoking adds the users chances of having a heart attack and getting lung cancer. It is the top cause of lung cancer in the United States (Cousins). The lungs are not the only organ smoking affects, either. Links to cancer of the mouth, cancer of the larynx or cancer of the bladder have been found connected to smoking (Cousins. ) There is no winning with tobacco. Putting the extremely high numbers of chemicals into ones body numerous times per day for many years cannot end happily. One-third of the deaths from cardiovascular disease, , are caused by smoking, writes Cousins about the other health problems of smoking (Cousins). If a smoker is fortunate and does not get cancer from smoking, they still have a much higher chance of having a heart attack in their future. While these ravaging events may not be fatal all of the time, they continually weigh down on the quality of a life a person is able to live. Smoking may affect the bodys ability to become healthy again from other health conditions or illnesses.In Smoke alarm, the author demonstrates this by pointing out, Some smokers require twice the quantity of certain drugs before they benefit from those drugs (Cousins). Talking about presription drugs, it shows that the body takes more medicine to reach the healthy benefits of the drug. This means more quantities of the drug need to be used to obtain the same effects as in a non-smoker. Prescription drugs have side-effects, as all drugs do, so taking more of them increase the risk of having the side effects.Tobacco enters all aspects of a smokers life and it should be banned because of the horrible health problems it causes the smoker. Furthermore, smoking has additional effects on women that prove its danger even more, and show reason for the prerequisite of a ban. The author shows this increased risk for women when he states, wom en smokers who use birth-control pills increase their chances of heart attack exponentially, (Cousins). A ban on birth-control pills is highly unlikely, showing the outcome for the problem being a ban on tobacco and smoking in order to protect women from these harmful effects from smoking.Additionally, smoking during pregnancy has round adverse effects on the child as well as the effects it causes the smoker. The author illustrates the effects on the child when he says, Pregnant smokers substantially increase the chances that they will miscarry, induce fetal birth defects, bear their infants prematurely and have babies of low birth weight. They increase the likelihood their newborns will die in the first month, (Cousins). This means that a woman should not smoke on birth-control, which could lead to more preganancies.If she smokes during her pregnancy, she raises her chances of having a miscarriage, have a child with birth defects, have her child too early and that are too small, or having her child die in the first month. Something needs to be done to stop smoking from harming more than just the individual who makes the decision to smoke, and the solution is making such a horrible product outlawed. The harmful chemicals in cigarettes and tobacco products are other reason why tobacco should be illegal. The staggering number of chemicals, some with no purpose other than harm, in cigarettes is disgusting.A smoker inhales thousands of these chemicals with every puff, and many stand by in the body as the author reveals, about 1,200 chemicalschemicals also contained in chimney smoke and auto exhaustswould remain, (Cousins). The same chemicals found in cigarettes could be succeed by inhaling the exhaust from a car, or from a chimney. A person might find that behavior odd, but it is the same as smoking a cigarette, and they continue that practice for years. One of these powerful chemicals is carbon paper monoxide.This chemical is extremely bad for the human bod y as the author writes, One dangerous obscure found in smoke from all cigarettes, whatever the level of tar or nicotine, is carbon monoxide. This gas tends to bump oxygen from red blood cells and depletes the body of this vital element, (Cousins). The vital element is oxygen, and humans need it to survive. There is no advantage to putting chemicals into a body that do the reverse the gains of one of the necessities of life. perchance the worst chemical in cigarettes and tobacco products, however, is nicotine.Nicotine is the chemical in tobacco products that makes the user addicted to it both mentally and physically as Cousins notes, Nicotine has been classified as an addictive or compulsive substance by growing numbers of scientists and institutions, including the National Institute on Drug Abuse, (Cousins). With this chemical in cigarettes, the smoker finds it more and more difficult to quit smoking and that is a reason that such high numbers of Americans are reliant on cigarette s as Senator Kennedy writes, Over cardinal million Americans are currently addicted to cigarettes, (Kennedy).With numbers this high, a ban must be put on tobacco. People are trying cigarettes when they are young, and nicotine works its black magic to keep them as lifelong customers as asserted in tobacco plant WARS, Because of the addictive nature of nicotine, very few of those kids who became smokers in middle school and high school quit by college, said Henry Wechsler of Harvard University, the author of the study, (TOBACCO WARS). Tobacco will not go forward anytime soon as long as the tobacco companies want money, so serious and immediate action is needed.The dangers that tobacco and smoking causes people does not stop with health effects. Cigarettes pose a great danger of fires and damage. Cigarettes burn very easily, and a simple misplacement of a burning cigarette butt can lead to unrelenting fires and astronomical numbers in property damage as Cousins describes when he add s, Cigarettes cause 74,000 fires a year, in which 2,000 people die and 6,000 are burned. Aside from the midical costs incurred, the fires add $210 million to property damages alone (Cousins).This shows once again the tremendous financial cost of tobacco as well as humanly cost in lives and medical tuition. There is nothing strong about tobacco, and a ban must be put into place to give some safety back to citizens. Tobacco is the most deadly product legal in America today. Anyone can smoke cigarettes, and anyone over 18 can purchase them. The law does little to stop the spread of tobacco all around the people, so the ultimate step must be taken. Tobacco must be illegalized because it causes too much harm to the user, the people around the user, unborn babies and to people from fires.Without looking ahead to the future, the overwhelming high number of deaths is reason enough for taking action as mentioned in an article stating, The deaths of more than 400,000 Americans each year, 1 60,000 of them from lung cancer, make a strong case for the prohibition of tobacco, and particularly of cigarettes, (An immoral weed Tobacco). The education of this epidemic is not enough, it must be banned to save the lives of Americans and their children. IV. The largest opposition of a ban on tobacco and smoking is how it is such a great itemor in the economy. Tobacco is a huge part of the agricultural industry in America.It is heavily relied upon by many people as Cousins conveys as he states, Tobacco is the countrys fifth-largest cash crop. About 500,000 farm families are dependent on the continued success of this industry, (Cousins). With half a million people dependent on the crop as well as the economy of a nation, it is impossible to deny the enormous impact the removal of this would have on the nation. Nonetheless, tobacco does far more harm than it does good. For the half a million families dependent on it, there are another(prenominal) half a million each year who los e a loved one due to tobacco and smoking.There are other jobs out there that are not related to the deaths of so many, and those can be found easily. The help the tobacco companies do for the economy and the government is overshadowed by the spending in health care that the government must do to combat the detrimental effects that tobacco causes. So much money was needed to help the nation with their smoking-related health costs, that the government went back to the tobacco companies for help. An agreement in 1998 shows this as the article writes, the attorneys general of 46 states signed a historic agreement with tobacco companies. he nations four largest tobacco companies will pay $206 billion of 25 years to states to help pay for smoking-related health costs (TOBACCO WARS). Cousins shows the yearly cost of tobacco on health care in 1984 when he emphasizes, The cigarette industry costs the nation about $27 billion for medical care (estimated by the American Cancer Society) (Cou sins). This shows that the health related cost and cost in human lives far outweighs the good that tobacco does for the economy of the nation. An additional argument against the fight for the illegalization of tobacco is that it is the choice of the user.In the free country of the United States, the people should have the independence of choice to do as they occupy with smoking. This free choice affects the safety of others who do not want to exercise this choice. Sidestream smoke is just as, if not more dangerous as inhaling directly from a cigarette. and people who have care for their health choose not to be exposed to this. The right to a safe environment is more important than a persons right to smoke and Cousins compares this right to others as he notes, our freedom to do as we please has always been limited by our freedom to live in a safe society.Because spitting can spread tuberculosis, we are encouraged not to spit in public places. We are not free to start gunfights (Co usins). Tobacco should be made illegal because the freedom of choice to smoke puts others at risk, and the unalienable right of the pursuit of happiness is compromised when this safe environment for men, women, and children who choose not to smoke is ruined. Moreover, an argument against the fight on tobacco is that a ban on tobacco will increase the number of fatal alcohol-related car accidents.The reasoning is justified by research that shows that counties that introduce a ban on smoking in public places, have an increase in fatal alcohol-related car accidents. An article shows this claim in numbers when it states, The researchers analysed data from 120 American counties, 20 of which had banned smoking. They found a smoking ban increased fatal alcohol-related car accidents by 13% in a typical county (Unlucky strikes Smoking and drinking). This increase in accidents shows the posture of the nicotine in cigarettes because the smokers go anywhere where they are permitted to have a cigarette.While this number of deaths can not be ignored, it is still miniscule compared to the close to half a million deaths that smoking causes nationwide in a year. The way to stop this accident increase is a complete ban on cigarettes, which will save them the trouble of driving far away to smoke, because it will not be permissible to do this action anywhere, as well as the trouble of future health problems that are nearly inevitable with smoking. The tobacco companies may claim countless items in the attempt to keep their product halcyon in the nation, but they have not faced the facts.The facts show that cigarettes create many other health problems, and no amount of economic help, free choice, or car accidents will stop these health problems from being an undeniable part of life for smokers and non-smokers. Tobacco and cigarettes must be made illegal to stop this terrible epidemic. V. Conclusively, the utter destruction tobacco and cigarettes cause on the bodies of millions of humans across America the world show beyond any doubt that this product must be outlawed. Cigarettes cause severe health problems like lung cancer, other cancers, heart disease and a much higher risk of heart attacks.These effects floor for almost half a million deaths in the United States each year. Cigarettes can increase the amount of medicine it will take to achieve the same effects in a non-smoker and in women it can significantly increase the risk of heart attacks when coupled with birth control pills. Smoking while large(predicate) can lead to birth defects, miscarriages, a premature birth or a low birth weight. Cigarettes contain deadly chemicals such as carbon monoxide which is found in car exhausts and nicotine which keeps a person addicted and coming back to smoke more and more cigarettes.This means they are inhaling more and more of the other thousands of chemicals found in cigarettes. Outside the body, cigarettes are a fire hazard. Thousands of fires are started e very year due to cigarettes and this leads to even more deaths and health care costs. Still people argue that cigarettes should remain legal. They claim that because tobaccos status as the fifth largest cash crop in the United States and the fact that it supports thousands of families that it should remain legal. A product, however, that kills as many or more people as it helps is not beneficial for anyone.Another argument they throw out is that it is the smokers choice whether or not they want to smoke. They are correct because people can choose to harm their own bodies if they want. Smoking interferes with more than just the users body though. People die from secondhand smoke as well as from the fires cigarettes cause, so the harm is not limited to only the user and compromises the safe environment of others. Finally, people who are against tobacco illegalization say that banning tobacco will increase fatal alcohol-related car accidents.While the research shows that is true in the low number of places they sampled, it also reveals the power of nicotine and the need people have for smoking when they are introduced to this substance. The only way to stop this problem, and all of the monstrous health effects that smoking causes is to make it against the law. It is a simple fix for such a colossal problem that affects so many millions of people, and must be done immediately to save the men, women, and children held by the grasp of the devilish tobacco companies.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Four Freedoms

The basic idea of the four granting immunitys has changed drastically from the times of the 1940s to the current time we ar living in now. In the 1940s, the freedoms that race were promised to receive werent for all people of different races and they were different from what the four freedoms had to offer the common good of party compargond to our time now. In present time, people are more accepted for who they are and what race they are. Also, almost ever soyone in the States has the privilege to enjoy the perks of what the four freedoms promises Ameri bottom of the innings.As a nation the meaning of the four freedoms has changed overtime and the peoples tolerance of each other no subject what race, skin color, or where they are from has changed the freedoms largely over a period of 60-70 years. The freedom that I think has changed the most come out of the four freedoms is the freedom of speech. Back in the 1940s racial borders would prevent black people from being taken ser iously if they were to speak out on their own opinions and the way they see things. There was still this wizard of racism in the 1940s and African-Americans were still in the struggle to get the same civil rights as the white opus.Also, if a black man was ever to speak out against the government he would be punished for even saying allthing. An example of this was when Martin. Luther King. Jr. spoke out his opinion and started peaceful protests that would lastly get him in trouble. He ended up being sent to jail for sharing his opinion on black civil rights. Overtime he was killed by a James Earl Ray by assassination. In our present time weve learned to accept what everyone has to say and its respect to speak out on your opinion and there are no racial barriers.An example of freedom of speech today is Barack Obama. He believed and throughout his campaign for presidency entitle that healthcare should be avail adequate to(p) for every American. Before in the 1940s a black man woul dnt be taken seriously and a black man wouldnt see the focus of speaking out his opinion when it doesnt matter to any(prenominal)one else. In comparison from back then to this point of time the freedom of speech has changed and people have learned to be more acceptable or open to whatever anyone else has to say no matter who the person is, what color their skin is or where they are from. eitherone truly does have the right now to say however they feel in America. The freedom that I think has changed the least is the freedom of fear. In the 1940s the whole country has a sense of togetherness since Roosevelt was trying to unite our nation to fight back against japan and Germany. World War II inserted a sense of fear into us when they bombed Pearl Harbor and we were all scared that other countries would take over ours. Roosevelt preached that if he country all stuck together we would do just fine and win this war as long as we were all a team.Everyone in America feared that we would be attacked and it relates to our time now in a way. When 911 happened in 2001 fear struck us. We couldnt believe that airplanes were coming peck and destroying broad buildings. We never expect anything like that to happen to us and we feared, What if we were next? As a nation we fought back against the terrorists and captured Osama Bin Laden the leader of Al-Qaeda, the terrorist group that bombed our country, and we showed the land that America shouldnt be messed with because we are all one big community of a billion people.The people of America put trust in our government to do the right thing and they did. Overtime things have stayed the same in our nation and the unity to keep the rights we are promised as American citizens has brood us to make our country better. As Americans we know we are in good hands with the safety that the marines, army, air force and navy give us. The freedom that I think is the most important is the freedom from want. The freedom from want is to no t want anything you cant have and not being able to have it ever.In the 1940s the freedom from want was available to all people besides people who were segregated against. The certain groups were Japanese, African-Americans, and sometimes Jewish people. For example, Japanese people were segregated against because of the attacks on Pearl Harbor and everyone thought all Japanese people were spies. Also, African-Americans were treated wrong just because of their history as slaves and they white man thinking theyre better than them. Another group were the Jews because Jews over the history of time were blamed for anything bad ever happening.Jews were always looked down by orderliness and its sad that they couldnt get the rights they were promised to have as American citizens. In our present time everyone has the opportunity to be whoever they are trying to be. dull people earned the right to be at equal status as white people. An example is Barack Obama and his life goal. Barack Obama knew from an early age what he cute to do and he did it. He works really hard in school, did everything that could get him to where he is now and never took a bad turn in life.Back then it was a joke to think a black man would ever be President of the United States, but he proved the arena wrong. Back then you would never think these people would have these rights, but they do now and everything is for the better since everyone can earn whatever they want to do as long as they set their minds to it. The freedom that in my eyes is the least important is the freedom of pietism. The freedom of righteousness is being able to come any religion of your own choice.In the 1940s people were certainly able to practice any religion they want, but some religions were frowned upon and considered against the law. An example is the Ku-Klux-Klan and their practices in the 1940s. They use to murder black people, Jews and people who didnt fit in with their society. Eventually this would become a religion for this group. In the 1940s not every religion was accepted, but still is the same now. Its not about the spiritual thoughts of hate against different races that got them in trouble, but the things they actually did physically that made the religion frowned upon and against the law.Now people are accepting any religion that practices spiritually, but when it comes to physical or verbal practices that hurt people then its against the law. The government cracks down on most of these hate groups, but the thing is you cant stop anyone from what they want to do. Times have changed, but the ability to practice any religion you want will stay the same. The four freedoms have stayed the same and changed over a series of time. We consider the freedoms the same today and they all get into strongly to this day.As a nation we have bettered our self-interest to fit the nations best interest and learned to accept each other for who we are. Every person of every race has all the same rights. There still are those people, who dont find each other equal, but they cant publicly speak the way they fell or they will get in trouble. The four freedoms has ensured all Americans the safety, freedom of speech, freedom to practice any religion they want, and the ability to be anyone you want to be if you strive for it. Being American has perks, but the four freedoms help us distinguish us as Americans and make us who we are.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Essay on Mark Twain a+ Grade Essay

Few people across the States have not more than once come across the defecate of Mark bitstock, a name spoken throughout the country for the 100 years since his death. Mark twosome is the best example of a great American author, foremost for his book The Adventures of tom Sawyer. Few people past the sixth grade have not at least heard of Tom sawyer beetle and Huckleberry Finn, Proving the impact this piece has had on America. Life wasnt always peachy for Mark span though, Born Samuel Langhorne Clemens, suspender went through a cacophony of hardships on his way to fame. His father died when he was only eleven, and he was sent off to apprentice for a printer named Ament. He after got a job as a journalist which got him on his way to becoming an see writer. Life after fame how of all time brought more heartbreak than good with the death of his wife and later his wife. He took much pleasure in his four-legged friends however, and is well know as an avid cat lover.Twain is most we ll known for his piece The Adventures of Tom Sawyer. It is an American classic, portraying young Tom sawyer and his friend Huck Finn in an adventure, ending in the capture of Injun Joe, a man who murder the doctor and who had a cave full of treasures. Mark Twain pulls the reader in whilst keeping attention with chapters teeming with action, adventure, suspense and romance. The Adventures of Tom Sawyer was followed by The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, an exciting sequel that received just as much if not more praises from readers across america.Some may wonder what possessed Mark Twain as to why he became a writer, when the answer is quite clear. Upon his fathers death in 1846, Young Samuel Clemens was sent off to apprentice for a printer named Ament, in exchange for board and clothing. He then became a typesetter, setting the print for various newspapers in his hometown.He did that for another four years in the lead writing small articles for his brother Orions small newspaper. Cl emens moved to Nevada and traveled as a miner in Virginia City before finding work at the local paper, The Territorial Enterprise, where he first used his pen name. Mark Twain was taken from the steamboat mans measuring cry that signaled weewee was deep enough for safe passage.Life after Fame was both sweet and sour for Mark Twain at this point. Though he rarely ever invited visitors into his home, Mark Twain truly enjoyed the company of his cats. It was even noted in an ad from Royal Crown Cola in the 1940s about Twains disposition and his love for his cats. It is stated that he lived with up to nineteen at one time. In 1905 one of Mark Twains cats, a big gorgeous black cat named Bambino, ran away and Twain was devastated. He offered a reward seeking the return of his cat. The cat was found by Twains secretary. Sadly, Twains last years were marked with depression, brought on by the death of a daughter, his wife and close friends. He began his autobiography in 1906, and it is unsu re when it was actually finished after its recent discovery. He died of a heart attack on April 21, 1910, in Redding, Connecticut, where he was buried on his wifes family plot.It is indisputable the impact Mark Twains writing has had on society as a whole, his name scattered across america and known by millions. His two most popular books, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer was and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn have gone down in history as priceless american classics, and continue to be treasured more than one-hundred years after their creation.Fame and fortune was bittersweet for him however, and though he took much pride and joy in his esteemed feline friends, he went through a period of extreme loss shortly before his own death. It is a well known fact, that Mark Twain has left his mark on American History, and will be remembered for centuries to come.

Monday, May 20, 2019

Gulliver’s Travels: Gulliver’s Identity Loss

Spencer Shelburne British literary productions I Novel Paper 12/2/11 Gullivers Lost Identity J. R. R. Tolkien at erst said, Not all who wander be lost. It is to be assumed indeed that he was non talk ab proscribed Capt. Lemuel Gulliver. Gullivers Travels by Jonathan Swift is a narrative of the individualism crisis. Captain Gulliver is indeed lost, both literally and metaphorically. He sets out on a voyage seeking a way to fulfill his indistinguishability element operator as the financial supporter of his family, nevertheless once he leaves the structured fellowship of England, his sense of identity is lost. At clippings, he does not fifty-fifty consider his family back home.He is mis backsided in remote countries with strange inhabitants. In his misplacement, an interesting identity-void is created Gulliver has no way to define himself as a foreigner in a new society. The need to belong overwhelms him, and he accepts some(prenominal) identity that is thr take in his way, no matter how degrade it is. Through this void, Swift explores how society and politics regularally function to disassemble and reinvent the individual. In distri andively of the countries Gulliver travels to, he is isolated from a sense of kinship and alienated from bridal, the degree of which increases with each voyage.This insanity and closing off is surprisingly first apparent in his home country, England. In an un aflame t iodine he describes his family My puzzle had a small estate in Nottinghamshire I was the third of five sons my father now and hence sending me small sums of money (p. 1). Likewise, his attachment to his wife is just as dispassionately observed I married Mrs. Mary Burton, second daughter to Mr. Edmond Burton, Hosier, in Newgate-street (p. 2). Even in his professional life, Gulliver has no realistic connection.He comments, But my good Master Bates dying in two years after, and I having few friends, my strain began to fail for my conscience woul d not suffer me to imitate the bad practice of too human macrocosmy among my brethren (p. 2). though he tries to connect to society by participating in a respectable profession, he form alone. This alienation and isolation is a minor theme throughout his voyages it is the first step in the systematic approach Swift takes towards dealing with the broader theme of identity. In each of the cultures Gulliver encounters, this sense of alone-ness increases.In Lilliput and Brobdingnag, for example, Gulliver is even much marginalized from society by their fear of his physical appearance he is a giant compared to the six-inch Lilliputians and an insect to the sixty-foot tall Brobdingnags. He is constantly aware of his differences from his hosts, creating a conscious sense of alienation. In the articles of his freedom, the Lilliputians point out they concluded from the semblance of their bodies, that mine must contain at least 1728 of theirs, and consequently would require as oftentime s food as was necessary to support that number of Lilliputians (p. 2). His differences isolate him from the Lilliputian society he physically does not fit anywhere, viewing their country as a sort of theatre (p. 9). His senses are also different, for he can see more further away than the Lilliputians, and likewise they can see much nearer than he. In Brobdingnag, he has to convince his master that he is not a lowly animal. The immense reaction to him highlights their repulsion of his differences The farmer by this time was convinced I must be a able creatureThen he called his wife, and shewed me to her, merely she screamed and ran back as women in England do at the sight of a toad or a spider (p. 58). Gulliver is different from the native inhabitants of Lilliput and Brobdingnag and is alienated as such. In his voyages to Laputa and Houyhnhnm, Gullivers societal isolation drastically increases, until he reaches the apex with the Houyhnhnms. In both countries he is openly condesc ended for both his physical and his intellectual limitations, and because of this condescension he is isolated from the rest of the society.When he refused the flapper to converse, it gave his Majesty and the integral court a very mean pinion of my understanding (p. 114). The king wants to learn nothing of Englands history, but rather asks Gulliver to focus on European mathematics and received the account with great contempt and insensibility (p. 120). In Laputa, Gulliver and his native society are weaknesses. The isolation in Houyhnhnm is the most acute, however. Gulliver cannot relate to them because they are not human they are a superior species of horse. Nor can he relate to the repulsive and foul Yahoos who are human in an unrecognizable form.Spatially this isolation is manifested in the placement of his housing the master horse staged a place for me to lodge in it was but six yards from the house, and separated from the stable of the Yahoos (p. 175). Although Gulliver tak es up conversancy with the Houyhnhnms it is always understood that he is associated with the Yahoos, for whom Gulliver has affected a deep hatred. They teach him the language, yet looked upon it as a prodigy, that a brute animal should discover such marks of a rational creature (p. 175). Gullivers alienation here in the country of horses is vastly complete.Where then does this alienation and isolation leave Gulliver? He is in an identity-void, searching for any form of acceptance. Swift presents this as early as Gullivers life in England. He lists his self-worth by his education and professional training, name-dropping as often as possible to give himself impressiveness He sent me to Emanuel-College in Cambridge I was bound apprentice to Mr. James Bates, an eminent surgeon in London Leyden there I studied Physic two years and seven months (p. 1). Through this serial of wealthy names, Gulliver is seeking an identity through the acceptance of his audience.Lilliput is much differe nt than England, however, in both its inhabitants and its culture. In this identity-void, Gulliver grasps at any straw of acceptance, no matter how degrading or humiliating. He literally gives himself sooner the emperor and princes, offering complete servility he is a servant, eager to please his new masters. Upon subsequent duty against the Lilliputians sworn enemy, the Blefuscu, he says, This great Prince received at my landing with all possible encomiums, and created me a Nardac upon the spot, which is the highest title of honour among them (p. 29).He has achieved a place in the Lilliputian society and is elated. In his almost dire elbow grease to gain favor with the emperor and princes, he proclaims I desired the secretary to present my dishonor duty to the Emperor an to let him know, that I thought it would not become me, who was a foreigner, to interfere with parties but I was ready, with the hazard of my life, to defend his person and state against all invaders (p. 26). He has learned the language gravely to build a bridge over his alienation. He has allowed himself to be held captive, knowing full well that overdue to his sheer strength, he could squash whomever he choses.But only on the Lilliputians terms does Gulliver receive acceptance, and as witnessed in the rapid recall of his title and honor, it is short-lived at best. As Gullivers journeys progress, the occurrences of even temporary social identity and occasions of acceptance decrease rapidly, an inverse to the increase of his alienation. From Brobdingnag on, Gulliver never fully adapts to their societies, although he does not furlough trying to find his adopted identity. In Brobdingnag, he humors the Queen, entertaining her as a birdie-like bestowthing, winning her favor.In an attempt to build his own identity as the Queens favorite, he deliberately undermines the Queens dwarf, sending him to live with another sign as a punishment. In Laputa and Houyhnhnm, Gulliver experiences somet hing altogether different than what he has encountered before. Laputa is a floating island of philosophy and higher(prenominal) thought, a would-be utopia if it were not for excess and the lack of reason. Gulliver makes an attempt to understand the Laputans by learning their language, see various places such as their court, universities and land below, but cannot reconcile himself with what he finds it is too abstract and tedious.He grows more and more weary of those people (p. 127) and feels neglected (p. 127). For the first time in all his travels, he longs for England. In place of Gullivers drive for acceptance, the reader is introduced to Lord Munodi. He is an isolated character, and much like Gulliver he is seeking his identity in a society that does not accept him. In Lord Munodis case, it is because he is too rational and looked upon with tenderness, as a well-meaning man, but of a low contemptible understanding (p. 129).Having failed to achieve an countenance identity in these societies, it is not without desperation that Gulliver next throws himself so fully in the pursuit of acceptance from the Houyhnhnms. To physically set himself apart from the Yahoo-humans and be acceptable to the Houyhnhnms, he hides the appearance of his person with his clothes I had hitherto concealed the secret of my dress, in order to distinguish myself as much as possible, from that verbalize race of Yahoos but now I found it in vain to do so any longer (p. 177). He swears his master to secrecy, so that the rest of the Houyhnhnms will not think less of him.He goes out of his way to impress them with his acquisition of language and would be very content to live the rest of his time with the reasonable creatures. He is successful at creating a life among these whom he has grown to admire and love, and even eventually moves into his Masters house. But other Houyhnhnms do not approve of a Yahoo staying in their own homes, and Gulliver is banished from Houyhnhnm. His alienati on had overcome his acceptance dramatically. Where does this leave Gulliver? From his isolation to desperate attempts for acceptance comes a loss of basic human identity.In England, Gulliver does not have any emotional attachment to his family as befitting a man of the middle class. He is an emotionless person concerned more with financial and social status than with expiration his wife, five months pregnant, and the children he barely knows so he can travel again he shows more emotion towards the Houyhnhnms than he does with his family. In his drive to succeed in English society, he has ceased being an emotional creature of humanity. In Lilliput, Gullivers loss of a human identity is much more literal when he allows himself to be chained up as a prisoner.The image of him with chains around him, and his observation that being fixed within four inches of the gate, allowed me to creep in, and lie at my full length in the tabernacle (p. 9) brings to mind a dog in the doghouse. He all ows the Lilliputians to strip him of his English identity by renaming him macrocosm Mountain, and he further distances himself from England when he learns their language in an attempt to bridge his alienation. In his desperation for acceptance, he allows himself to become a tool of the state and takes on the Lilliputian sworn enemy Blefuscu.In Brobdingnag, Gulliver likewise lowers himself so far as to stop being a human being, but rather a play thing for their amusement. He is again stripped of his English identity by being dressed in Brobdingnagian styled attire and renamed Gildrig. He gets so immersed in the Brobdingnag culture that he has a very strong time going back to his native culture in England, and therefore he treats his family as if they were Lilliputians. In Houyhnhnm the reader sees the most drastic change in Gullivers identity as a human as he becomes a loner.It is here that he loses all sense of his former humanity. He is sickened by the psyche of going to live am ong the Yahoos, and he has so fully adopted the Houyhnhnm society that he cannot help but see his family as ugly, beastlike creatures. In the end, he is forced to return to the public from which he came. Having seen the things he has, the world of Yahoos is disgusting to him. When rescued by Don Pedro De Mendez, Gullivers complete submersion in Houyhnhnm culture is at once apparent in his accent and his clothing. Once home, he is barely able to tolerate the presence of his family.He then goes into a kind of madness, spending his days talking to the horses in his stable as if to recreate Houyhnhnm. It is when he is alienated from social acceptance that his identity starts weakening. Gulliver doesnt just try to gain a new identity, one is forced upon him he is a monster a repulsive Yahoo in Houyhnhnm, a doll named Gildrig in Brobdingnag, and of course a Man Mountain tool in Lilliput. Eventually, he latches on to any acceptance he can find, even if it means losing his basic identity a s a human. school Cited Swift, Jonathan. Gullivers Travels. New York Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Influential and Sociological Aspects of Gangs Essay

AbstractThe purpose of this look is to identify the sociological aspects and means in which single(a)s may use in order to affiliate themselves inwardly a battalion and their practices. The following enquiry uses statistics and information given by police departments and the Department of Justice. I incur searched for reason behind an individuals decision to center a doughnut from a sociological perspective. It begins by defining a gang and what leads recent individuals to a life carriage and choice of connecter these gangs. Sociological approaches argon made in order to accompany these peoples decisions and to make maven of their judgment. Taking this information and research into encounteration may direct future research on the aspects and decisions of amicable citizens in which influence them to labor union and be a part of a lane gang.What is a junto?In both, eitherday life and the sociological world, the term gang is defined in more diametrical ways however, every altered definition is fairly analogous or related to one an new(prenominal)(a). t bothy to the Merriam-Webster Dictionary (2011), a gang is defined as a group of psyches working to unlawful or antisocial ends especi totallyy a band of antisocial adolescents. The U.S. Department of Justices survey analysts Egley and major(ip) (2004), though, define a gang as a group of three or more individuals who subscribe to themselves in criminal activity and identify one another with a shargond and mutual name, sign, or symbol. On a governmental point of view, several fixs perk up passed their own gang-related legislation this is including each states different definition of a street gang.The comportment of these street gangs brings several anti-gang activities into gambling for every society, for example, curfews and home raids. According to Robert Walker (2011), writer for confederacys Or Us, gang members be those who conform to one or more of the visible gang traits. These traits include a parcel of landd group name, common symbols, tat in any cases, or graffiti, style of dress, geographic location or association in a group form on a consistent basis. It is easy to see that gangs and their members highly appreciate their symbols and strongly practice symbolical interactionism. Members of the National coalescency of Gang Investigators Associations (NAIGIA) conceptualize that there is no untouched region by gangs in the United States. They in any case consider gangs to bewilder a high effect on society at many levels this increases citizens idolise for safety, violence, and eventually increased cost to the economy ( NAIGIA 2005).Sociological ApproachesThere are up-to-date, contemporary explanations for the ways humans prefer to act upon in which could be clarified as either a result of the individuals choice or their overall response to environmental, or any other, forces. According to Michael K. Carlie (2002), there are those who accept in fr ee ordain and those who could be categorized as determinists.Individuals who believe in free will are certain that people exact to behave the way they do they are hedonistic, meaning they choose how to behave in order to establish pleasure over pain, and these individuals believe people are reasoning(prenominal) and may choose from a variety of choices in which how to behave. On the other hand, determinists believe the complete opposite. They looking as if human behavior is determined by forces outside of the individuals control. Determinists believe that biologic make-up, psychological states, and socio-cultural situations determine how the person will behave (Carlie 2002). on with these two approaches comes differential association. This assumes that criminal behavior and its techniques are a part of the learning process. The individuals perception of law and shame determines how that person will behave in society (Walsh & Hemmens, 2008). This theory unmistakably ex limpids the outcome of gang violence referable to an individuals exposure of existing gangs and their actions within their society.Components of Cultural DevianceAnother theory that many like to refer to would be social disorganization. This philosophy concentrates more on the circumstances in the informal city that affect offensive activitys. They include, unless are not limited to, the destruction of homes and neighborhoods, lack of social control, and the presence of gangs or groups who violate the law (Siegel 2010). Other than this theory, there is such thing as the strain theory. This suggests that crime is brought upon communities and individuals by the overwhelming strain that people are fingering when they aspire to reach their personal ambitions but have no way to grasp them. According to Featherstone and Deflem (2003), strain theorists believe that money and power are spread throughout economic classes un competently. They feel as if this frustration and strain built by indiv iduals who are not able to achieve their goals is what influences a persons choice to commit a crime. accept this, strain theorists feel that the youth are certain that the only way to obtain what they desire is to join gangs, because they see other gang members in the community prosper with money. However, it is due to a life of crime and unfortunately, the youth feel as if joining the gang will benefit them in the same way. A combination of the social disorganization and strain theories brings a new concept, which is considered as the cultural deviance theory.These theorists believe that criminal behavior is the result of social isolation in urban environments as well as the strain they strain from their neighborhoods or environments, too (Siegel 2010). A follower of this cultural deviance theory would consider the combination of being sackd in a deteriorated neighborhood and the strain of knowing no other option out for reasoning towards an individuals choice in joining gangs a s straightforward (Siegel 2010). The theorists believe that it would take both negative eventors to push a person far enough to a point where they feel the need to take part in a gangs uncultivated behavior.American Youth Wanting to Join GangsFirst and fore almost, each individual case varies however, many similar reasons are tied into a unfledged adults decision and need to join a street gang. The so-called common denominator of why youth memberships of gangs increase is the alienation and profound identity privation in which they are looking to regain through the presence of an accommodating peer group (Barnhart 2008). A Pittsburgh Youth Study indicated that 20 percent of the African American youth enter a gang by the time they have reached the age of 15. It overly illustrates that gang entry begins as early as the age of 9 (Lahey, Gordon, Loeber, Stouthamer-Loeber & Farrington 1999).The reasons for such rapid rates of entry may include the individuals feeling of gaining sec urity, protection, and a sense of belonging. Many may agree, when tell, that these could be seen as the main apparatuses of a young persons decision to join. It is known that the lack of family, community, or youth support systems is respectable reasoning behind their decisions as well. According to the OJJDP Bulletin (2003), the fact that the youth who are living in a lower class are raised in decrepit, run-down neighborhoods is a key aspect in which why these people choose to participate in the violence and danger associated with gang involvement.Other factors that play a character reference in a young individuals decision to join a gang include the need for a surrogate, or substitute, family. These young people join gangs to receive love, attention, and adulation in which they feel are lacking at their actual homes. Also, according to the Edmonton legal philosophy Service (2011), American youth turns to gang affiliation because of low self-worth and low self-esteem that they g ain due to unemployment or academician failure. It is also noted that many street gang members wish to carry on a family tradition of gang involvement established by family members, such as parents, siblings and cousins, in which they portray as role models (Edmonton Police Service 2011).Unfortunately, misconstrued members of society believe that many positive opportunities come out of being coincided with street gangs. These thrill seeking individuals, which share a similar characteristic of defiant behavior, wish to financially gain profits from illegal, life-threatening activities (Gang Awareness Guide, no year, pg. 3). Tracy E. Barnhart (2008) mentions that these misunderstood participants of social order join because they are degenerate of being picked on and are seeking power and respect among peers.Symbolic Interactionism Within GangsAccording to Dictionary.com (2011), symbolic interactionism is the theory that human interaction and communication is facilitated by words, g estures, and other symbols that have acquired conventionalized meanings (1). This is something that gang members all over the nation practice on a daily basis. One component of a gangs symbolic interactionism would be hand signs. According to the San Antonio Police Departments Youth umbrage Service Unit (2011), the use of hand signs is one of the most popular forms of communication for street gangs across the United States. They also continue to state that each gang uses an identifying sign which shows what major gang they are in affiliation to.This method of language is not only an identifying factor but also a process in which a gang member may show disrespect to rival gangs (6). on with speech, similar phrases, and hand signs being indicators of gang association, it is also noted that graffiti, colors worn, and tattoos are indicators of gang affiliation, too (Gang Awareness Guide, page 3). Such symbolism is an individuals self-definition more complete due to visually communica ting within his or her gang members and rival gangs. Symbolic interactionism among gangs is somewhat easy to identify and has contract a part of the average gang members life.Methods of investigateThe above research was found from secondary data analysis and reviews from government published documents. By stating that secondary data analysis was done, this illustrates that patriarchal sources were use, gathered, and translated by myself. In order to sustain as much credibility as possible, I have used official government and police department issues, such as bulletins and informational guides published by them. Along with these documents, the works of gang-related articles were used as well.The criteria for using these two methods of secondary data analysis and documents should be plain to see. They were the two methods of gathering information that I saw would be most necessary, or essential. Along with choosing the motif of gang affiliation and aspects of gangs, I have instan tly decided that these two methods must be used due to the fact that case studies and other methods would include me, the agent, putting myself in dangerous circumstances among passionate, groundless individuals and geographical areas in which they reside. However, every credible article and document has been cited accordingly throughout my works, research, and literature review.ResultsThis research has somewhat opened my eyes to the world of sociology among other things. The information established from several different sources all have the same idea and impression on gang affiliation. Their main focuses were similar due to the fact that almost all of them took sociological approaches to answering the question of why individuals join street gangs. For example, both the Edmonton Police Service and Tracy Barnhart agree that these individuals are struggling with their identities, have grown up in gang-related environments, and wish to join a street gang in order to establish a mone tary gain. Also, a orthodontic braces of the sources were police bulletins, and they all showed common signs of a gangster and what signs to look for to identify them. This information was used in order for me to understand the symbolic interactionism that most members share.For instance, the 2005 menace Assessment and the Gang Awareness Guide both explain that gangs utilize symbolic interactionism to an extreme they both commonly state that graffiti and tattoos are a major factor in gang symbolism. Unfortunately, I had some sources that contradicted one another when it came to the social theories for explaining a childs mentality towards gang membership. For example, NCJRS believed in the social disorganization theory. This explained that the community played the major role in an individuals action of joining a gang. On the other hand, author Mike Carlie believed that there were two different theories that answered this phenomenon.His theories were free will versus determinism. U nlike NCJRS, he believed that people may either choose to behave the way they do or biological and psychological make-up of an individual decides for them. Although there were slight differences, none of the sources disagreed with the idea of individuals joining gangs for acceptance, power, raised social rank, ect. By discovering similarities within most of these sources, I have decided that each source has a likeness and resemblance with the others. Several of them share the idea that cultural deviance has been highly effective in the growing matter of gang memberships. They also agree that these misunderstood and misguided individuals are influenced by the idea of having to gain social power throughout society. My conclusions have given me much insight and knowledge of influential and sociological aspects of street gangs.ConclusionTo decide this research that was constructed, I would like to state that every resource shared the common idea that our young adults join gangs for ac ceptance among other things. I agree with what I have taken in from these sources. My intellect from all of them was that if these struggling, gang infested communities worked together to make their children feel accepted within positive groups and programs then the function of gang memberships would decline. There is a large scale of those individuals looking for acceptance and a way to raise their social status.I believe this should be accomplished by other means, such as afterschool programs and community sports, rather than partaking in a life of crime and violence. Nonetheless, every source was valuable to my research and they showed that, although there is a problem with gang activities, the communities do not have to struggle with the rapid increase. Most of the sources stated that if these young adults received more attention and love, not only from their primary group but the undefiled community as well, then their mentality and reasoning for joining street gangs would d eteriorate these individuals would have an equal opportunity to strive towards their personal goals of money and raised statuses.LimitationsThere were both strong and weak points, or findings, that came along with the research of sociological aspects of gangs. A very durable and strong factor that I feel aided my examination and exploration of the subject was the fact that authorized police bulletins and statements were used. However, along with these great sources I found myself feeling somewhat limited due to the fact that I could not personally blab out with a gang member to see how their thought process worked on the subject of joining a gang from a sociological view. I also found myself having a slight issue with finding credible, primary articles to go along with the bulletins and guides in which I have discovered and put to use.Recommendations for Future ResearchIn order to further research, or make the above research better, I believe that other sources and methods of obtai ning these sources should be used. I would have liked to construct a case study or have been able to find a completed case study that was already accomplished from a tested source. I seem to find an interest in this subject matter and may consider researching this point more in depth for the future. Along with finding a credible case study, I have also thought about using visual sources, such as the History Channels Gangland, in order to find a better understanding on the subject. Although it was not done in this particular research, I believe I may use my own advice in the recommendations for my future research.ReferencesBarnhart, T. E. (2008, April 7). why do youth join prison gangs?. PoliceOne. Retrieved November 22, 2011, from http//www.policeone.com/corrections/articles/1681985-Why-do-youth-join-prison-gangs/ Bureau of Justice Assistance. (2005). 2005 National Gang Threat Assessment. National Alliance of Gang Investigators Associations. Retrieved November 22, 2011, from http/ /www.bja.gov/what/2005_threat_assesment.pdf Carlie, M. Chapter 21 End Note. Into The Abyss A Personal Journey into the human race of Street Gangs. Missouri State University, 2002. Updated 5 July 2011. Retrieved November 22, 2011, from http//people.missouristate.edu/michaelcarlie/SOLUTIONS/THEORIES/theories.htm Dictionary.com. (2011). Definition of Symbolic Interactionism. Retrieved November 22, 2011, from http//dictionary.reference.com/browse/symbolic+interactionism Edmonton Police Service. (2011). Traits of Gang Members. Gangs. Retrieved November 21, 2011, from http//www.edmontonpolice.ca/CommunityPolicing/OrganizedCrime/Gangs/TraitsofGangMembers.aspx Egley, Jr, A., & Major, A. K. OJJP Fact Sheet. Highlights of the 2002 National Youth Gang Survey. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention J. Robert Flores, Administrator, 2004. Retrieved November 22, 2011, from www.ncjrs.gov/pdffiles1/ojjdp/fs200401.pdf Featherstone, Richard, and Mathieu Deflem. 2003. anomie and Strain Context and Consequences of Mertons Two Theories. Sociological Inquiry 73(4)471-489, 2003. Retrieved November 22, 2011, from

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Crime and Hand Unemployment Rate Essay

Many contemporary macro-level theories of criminal behavior and a posteriori tudies pf crime appraises address the relationship among sparing factor and crime. Relationship between economic circumstances such as pay inflation and unemployment to criminal activity is the main subject bailiwick of this study. Wage inflation and unemployment taken as predictors of crime rates. Unemployment and inflation are two intricately link up economic concept. In economics, inflation is a rise in the general level of prices of goods and services in an economy over a period of time and it is also erosion in the purchasing bureau of money.And unemployment occurs when a person is able to and willing to work but urrently without work. Unemployment is usually measured using the unemployment rate which is defined as the percentage of those in the labor for who are unemployed. One causes of unemployment is inflation. Over the years there has been a number of economists trying to interpret the rel ationship between the concepts of inflation and unemployment. This relationship is also cognize as the Phillips curve. Phillips curve is an inverse relationship between rate of unemployment and rate of increase in money wages.The higher the rate of unemployment, the lower the rate of wage inflation. In other words, there is a radeoff between wage inflation and unemployment lead to a problem that individual do such a social occasion Just to endure it. It means that if you are unemployed you will do anything to earn and to survive for commonplace living. For this, some people tend to commit crimes especially crime against property. It is a common observation of many a(prenominal) countries that unemployment rates and all crime rates are positively associated but negatively in the wage inflation.

Project on chemistry: study of digestion of starch by salivary amylase

Objectives of the Project ReportThe main objective of this interpersonal chemistry project report is To Study the digestion of starch by spittlery amylase and effect of temperature and pH on it and To matter digestion of starch by saliva. To study the effect of temperature on the digestion of starch by saliva. To study the effect of pH on the salivary digestion of starch.IntroductionEvery health book insists on the chewing of aliment. The act of chewing stimulates the excretion of saliva. spittle mixes up with the food and helps its digestion. That is, the enzyme ptyalin or amylase present in human saliva hydrolyse the big molecules of food into many molecules. For example starch into mono-saccharides maltose and glucose proteins into amino acids and fats into fatty acids and glycerol. Thus saliva not alone helps in digestion of food but convert it into energy generating substances.Further, enzymes and their activity are very sensitive to temperature and pH. unconstipated a sli ght variation in these two factors, can disrupt the action of enzymes. In new(prenominal) words, digestion of food by salivary amylase is also effected by pH and temperature and can be support experimentally. For example, hydrolysis of starch can be verified by raiseing it with iodine consequence. starch forms blue blue complex with iodine. If no starch is present in a system it will not lead blue polish with iodine.Requirements for Chemistry Project ReportThe requirements for experiment of Chemistry Project Report are as underTest tobacco pipes Test pipe stand One dropper Beaker Stop watch Starch and Iodine solution Thermometer Dil. HCl and Dil NaOH solution.Chemistry Experiment ProcedureProcedure for Chemistry Experiment is1) Collection of Saliva Rinse mouth throughly with refrigerant water and ensure that it does not contain any food particles. Now take about 20ml of lupe hard water in the mouth and gangle for about third pures so that saliva mixes up rise up with it. Spit this into a beaker. Filter, if there is any suspended impurity clear filtrate is saliva solution and contains enzyme ptyalin.2) Preparation of starch solution Take about 0.5g of starch in a 100ml beaker and tote up seemly water to make a paste. Dilute the paste by adding 50ml water and boil for about 5 min.3) Digestion of starch- (a) take 5ml of the starch solution in a test tube. Add 2 ml of saliva solution into it. Mix the solutions well by shaking the tube carefully and start a graduation watch. (b) After one minute take out two drops of the mixture solution from the test tube with the help of a dropper and transfer it into another test tube containing about one ml of 1% iodine solution. Note the colour produced, if any. (c) Repeat this test after all one minute taking two drops of the mixture solution and fresh 1% iodine solution continue until the test shows no blue colour. Record the time and blue colour intensity.Time Passed after mixing Colour Intensity1 Min. turbid Blue 2 Min. Blue 3 Min. Light Blue 4 Min. No BlueAbsence of blue colour on addition to iodine solution means absence of starch in the mixture solution. That is livelong of the starch has got digested or hydrolysed.Procedure Effect of temperature on the digestion of starch by saliva. Takethree test tubes and tail these 1, 2, 3.Take 5ml of the starch solution, 2ml of the saliva solution and 5 ml of water in each test tube. institutionalize test tube No. 1 in water at room temperature, test tube No.2 in a beaker containing water at 500 C and test tube No.3 in change state water. After 5 minutes, espouse the colour change on mixing two drops of the mixture of every tube with one ml of 1% iodine solution. Note the intensity of blue coloured form.ConclusionStarch compact hydrolysed by saliva amylase.Procedure To study the effect of pH on the salivary digestion of starch Take three test tubes and label these 1, 2, 3.Add 5ml of the starch solution, 2ml of the saliva solution in each test tube. Now add 2 ml of water inn test tube No. 1, 2 ml of dil HCl in test tube No. 2 and 2ml of dil NaOH solution in test tube No. 3 and shake carefully. Keep the three test tubes in water at room temperature for about 10 minutes. Add two drops of the solution of each test tube with 1% iodine solution and observe the colour change.ConclusionTemperature effects the digestion of starch by saliva with increase in temp salivary tumble get inactivated and process of digestion do not take place.